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مكتبة الصور



Modals and Their Uses

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل

Modals and Their Uses

مُساهمة من طرف CR9 في الجمعة أبريل 16, 2010 10:10 am

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hi how are today
in this time i give you the **
Modals and Their Uses
in this model we see
1. Ability
2. Request
3. Permission
4. Advice
5. Necessity
6. Prohibition
7. Lack of necessity
and more
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Modals and Their Uses




1. Ability

The quality of being able to do something
القدرة


a. Can expresses a present or future ability.
can تستعمل للحديث عن القدرات في الحاضر و المستقبل
Examples:
· Meena can teach reading class.
· Hallry can speak Cambodian.
· Bob can go to work tomorrow.


b. Could expresses a past ability
could تستعمل للحديث عن القدرات في الماضي
Examples
· Harold could ride a unicycle when he was younger.
· Bob could play tennis well when he was a teenager.
· Jane could function with less sleep when she was a girl.



N.B. Be able to can also be used to express ability.
ملاحظة هامة: be able to قد تستعمل للدلالة على المقدرة
Be (am/is/are) +able to is used I the present or future.
· He isn’t able to stand on his hands.
Be (was/were) + able to is used in the past.
· He was able to use his left hand when his arm was broken.
Be able to is more commonly used with other modal auxiliaries.
غالبا ما تستعمل be able to مع الـ modals لاخرى
· Will Gregg be able to pass the test?
· We may be able to visit you next week.
You should be able to give us more time


2. Request

the act of asking for something to be given or done, esp. as a favor
الطلب


Use would, could, can or will to ask someone to do something
تستعمل would, could, can, will لطلب عمل ما من شخص آخر


Examples:
· Can you switch on the light for me?
· Will you go to the shop for me?
· Would you do me a favour?






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3. Permission

approval to do something
الاذن: طلب الاذن للقيام بعمل ما


Can, could and may are used to ask for permission.
Examples:
· Can I have some candy?
· Could I switch on the light for me?
· May I use your phone?


There are many ways to answer permissions.
Could I sit here?
Yes, you can.
هذه بعض الأمثلة عن الطرق التي تستعمل لطلب الاذن
Certainly. / Sure. / Of course. / By all means. / No. Please, don't.



4. Advice

suggestions to a person about what he should do
النصيحة


a. Both should and ought to are used to give advice.
Ought to is not common in questions or in negative sentences.
Ought to لا تستعمل في النفي و السؤال
· I should study hard.
· I ought to study, too.


b. Had better is stronger than should or ought to. It is used for urgent advice.
Had better هي في المعنى اقوى من should or ought to و عادة يتضمن معناها التحذير


· You had (You'd) better take the early bus.
Had better refers to the present or the future but never to the past.

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5. Necessity

obligation / an unavoidable need or compulsion to do something
الضرورة في القيام بعمل ما (لا يوجد خيار في ذلك)


a. Must expresses an affirmative, strong necessity in the present or future. An obligation expressed by must have is imposed by the speaker or by the law.
تستعمل Must للحديث عن الضرورات المفروضة إما من القانون او من الشخص المتكلم على الشخص المستمع


· A soldier must obey army regulations. (The law says so.)
· You must follow traffic regulations. (The law says so.)


b. Have to expresses an affirmative, strong necessity in the present or future. An obligation expressed by have to is imposed by external circumstances.
تستعمل Have to للحديث عن الضرورات المفروضة من قبل اشخاص او ظروف أخرى غير القانون و المتكلم


· Mother says that you have to be home before sunset. (Mother says so.)
· You have to have a driver’s license.


6. Prohibition - المنع



Must not (mustn't) is used to express prohibition.
"Must not" means that you have no choice. You are not supposed to do something.
تستعمل Must not للحديث عن المنع او الضرورة بعدم القيام بعمل ما. و هي لا تتضمن اية اختيارات
· You must not smoke at the gas station.
· You must not stay in the room during a fire drill.





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7. Lack of necessity - عدم الضرورة



"Do not have to" is a modal of lack of necessity.
“Do not have to” means that you have a choice. You can do something if you want to do it.
تستعمل Do not have to للكلام عن عدم ضورة القيام بالشيء
أي ان الشخص لديه القدرة على الاختيار اما للقيام بالعمل او لا


· You do not have to do the extra credit.
· You do not have to eat in the cafeteria.


8. Possibility

capability of existing or happening or being true
الامكانية


a. Could, may and might are words that are used to express possible future actions. They mean that the speaker thinks the action is possible, but he or she is not completely certain about it.
تستعمل Could, may and might للحديث عن امكانية حصول الفعل في المستقبل و لكن الشخص عادة لا يكون واثقا تمام الثقة من ان الامر سيحدث.


For example:
· They are sick. This means that the speaker is sure that "they" are sick.
· They could be sick. This means that the speaker isn't positive that "they" could be sick.
· They might be sick. Again, this means that the speaker isn't positive that "they" are sick.
· They may be sick. This means the same as above. The speaker isn't positive that "they" are sick.


b. Use may not or might not to talk about the possibility that something will not happen.
تستعمل , may not and might not للحديث عن صعوبة حصول الفعل في المستقبل


· Alexa looks tired. She might not continue the competition.
· Alexa looks tired. She may not pass her final exam.


a. Could not is used to express strong impossibility.
تستعمل Could not للحديث عن عدم امكانية حصول الشيء في المستقبل. و هي في المعنى اقوى من may not and might not


· He could not have a driving test. He is not eighteen yet.


b. In question forms, use Do you think … or Is it possible … to ask about possibility.
· Do you think it may rain tomorrow?
· Is it possible that he might leave town?


CR9

عدد الرسائل : 2
العمر : 28
تاريخ التسجيل : 06/04/2010

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