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بحث عن الاخطبوط بالانجليزي , معلومات عن الاخطبوط باللغة الانجليزية

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بحث عن الاخطبوط بالانجليزي , معلومات عن الاخطبوط باللغة الانجليزية

مُساهمة من طرف yaheaissa في السبت يونيو 30, 2012 4:03 pm

بحث عن الاخطبوط بالانجليزي , معلومات عن الاخطبوط باللغة الانجليزية


The octopus is a cephalopod of the order Octopoda. The octopus inhabits many diverse regions of the ocean, especially coral reefs. The term may also be used to refer only to those creatures in the genus Octopus. In the larger sense, there are around 300 recognized octopus species, which is over one-third of the total number of known cephalopod species.

What is an octopus? The octopus is one of the most intelligent creatures in the ocean. Able to pop a can to gain access to food, this incredible animal used to carry a shell.

An Octopus is a cephalopod mollusk belonging to the order, Octopoda. Cephalopods consist of groups of free swimming invertebrates, such as squids, cuttlefish and octopuses, that lack a hard shell.

HISTORY AND LIFESTYLE
It is thought that through the process of evolution, the octopus lost its hard shell and has learned to live quite successfully as a soft bodied, tough skinned animal.

There are approximately 200 known species of octopuses. Larger species are most often found in cold, northern waters. Most make their homes in shallow coastal water and live inside dens or small caves at the ocean floor level. If no such items are available, octopuses will happily live inside old car tires, pots, jars and other debris.

Octopuses are considered anti-social, and live and travel alone. Octopuses frequently block the entrance to their homes with rocks and debris to keep others at arms length.


PHYSICAL APPEARANCE
The octopus does not carry a shell and typically has eight arms or tentacles, a round or pouch-like body and two large, very distinct eyes. Unlike other animals in its class, octopus can see objects.


Octopuses come in all sizes from 2-inches long to 18-feet in length. The most widely known octopus is the Common Octopus, which lives in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic oceans. The Common octopus reaches 10-feet in length. The larger, Giant Octopus, makes its home in the Pacific, and has a diameter of over 30-feet. Common North American octopus include the Common octopus, Giant octopus, and the American devilfish.


Octopuses are perhaps best known for their long, sucker carrying arms. The typical octopus has 8 arms, with each arm holding two rows of fleshy suckers. Each octopus has a total of 240 suction cups on the underside of each arm. If an arm is bitten off, diseased or otherwise missing from the octopus, a new arm grows back in its place. The arms are joined at the base of the octopus in an area known as the "skirt." In the center of the skirt, lies the the octopus' mouth. The mouth of the octopus contains a pair of sharp, horn-styled beaks and the radula, an organ used to drill shells apart and suck away fleshy meat.

MOVEMENT
Octopuses move by crawling along the bottom of the ocean with their arms. The octopus can use its suckers to grab on to rocks and pull itself with considerable force and speed.

EATING HABITS
The octopus seizes its prey by means of its sucker-bearing arms. It then pulls the prey into its mouth. A poisonous salivary secretion is emitted immediately, paralyzing the prey and partially digesting it. The octopus then chews, using both its horny jaw and radula.

Common prey of the octopus include crabs and lobsters. Several species of octopus feed on other shellfish, plankton and marine fish.

DEFENSE MECHANISMS
The octopus is thought to be the most intelligent of all the invertebrate animals. In an effort to protect itself, the octopus often constructs barricades made of large stones on the ocean floor. The octopus hides behind the barricade or in its crevices.

Much like squid, the octopus is also capable of producing a dark ink-like fluid from their internal ink sacs, which clouds the water and gives a message to approaching danger.

Octopuses are also capable of changing their color, depending on mood and environment. Rapid waves of color can sweep over the body of the octopus in seconds, and range from pink to brown. When in danger, the octopus often camouflages itself, by matching its body color to that of its surroundings.

BREEDING
Male and female octopuses reproduce sexually. The male is equipped with a sexual organ (on a modified arm) that deposits packets of sperm (known as "spermatophores") into the mantle cavity area of the female. Eggs, about 1/8-inch in size, are then encased in capsules and attached by the female to rocks or in holes. The female may deposit as many as 100,000 eggs at a time. It takes 4-8 weeks for eggs to hatch, during which time the female guards the eggs around the clock. Young octopuses hatch without a larval stage and appear as drifting plankton.

LIFESPAN
Although science has documented the existence of octopuses over the course of time, very little is known about certain areas of the octopus. Lifespan, for example, is not entirely understood. Studies in which octopus were raised from eggs in an aquarium produced varying results on the exact lifespan of the octopus. However, it is believed that the average lifespan of the octopus is just one year. Many believe that the octopus "lives fast and hard," always having the upper hand, because of their shortened life cycle.

RESEARCH STUDIES
It is thought that octopuses reach sexual maturity at the age of 5-months. Science has shown that octopuses possess an advanced brain that can be taught to do various things. Researchers have, among other things, successfully trained octopuses to remove lids from jars in order to gain access to food.

OCTOPUS DELICACY Octopus meat has been considered a culinary delicacy for years. Many parts of the world prepare and **** octopus as a food source.





The octopus is a cephalopod that inhabits many diverse regions of the ocean, especially coral reefs. Octopuses are characterized by their eight arms, usually with sucker cups on them. They are highly intelligent, but have a very short life span.
Cephalopods:

Cephalopods are invertebrates. Their inside organs are protected by a mantle, which consists of a thick covering of skin and muscle. Cephalopod means "head foot." Other cephalopods include squids, cuttlefishes and chambered nautiluses.

Anatomy:

Octopuses have a soft body and eight arms. Each arm has two rows of suction cups. An octopus uses its mantle to breathe. It has 'mantle slits' behind the eyes. It draws in water through the slits into the mantle. Two gills remove the oxygen from the water, then the slits close and the water is released through a tube called the "siphon."

Moving About:

Octopuses use their mantle to swim. They tighten all the mantle muscles at once, squeezing a blast of water from the siphon, causing the octopus to launch forward. It can control its speed by controlling the force of the water. They can also control the direction they go. Some octopuses also use their arms to crawl across the ocean floor.

Diet and Digestion:

Octopuses eat many different kinds of sea creatures. They like oysters and clams. They use their suction cups to pull the shells apart and get the food inside. They also like lobsters and crabs. Octopuses have a sharp beak. They use it to break through an animal's shell. Then it kills the animal with poison that the octopus makes in its mouth.

Reproduction:

The octopus mother lays thousands of eggs. She guards them for weeks. When the baby octopuses are born, the eggs burst open and the tiny octopuses swim out. The mother octopus will die soon after her eggs hatch. She will never see her babies again. Many babies will be eaten by fish, birds or other creatures.

Defending Themselves:



Octopuses face many dangers in the sea, but they do have ways of protecting themselves:
• Camouflage - They have special coloring to help them blend in with their surroundings.
• Hiding - The octopus can change colors which can confuse their enemies. They can also hide in holes in the rocks.
• Ink cloud - The octopus squirts a dark, inky liquid into the water and then swims away to safety.





The octopus

The octopus is an eight-armed hunter. It uses a most interesting method of concealing itself from other animals: camouflage. The cells which make up its skin automatically adapt to its surroundings and replicate, just like a mirror, their color and texture.

The octopus' eyes are very sharp. It can identify changes in its surroundings most effectively, and thus changes the color and pattern of its skin in accordance with its surroundings. Its skin is covered in special pigment-containing cells known as “chromatophores.” These cells in the skin expand or shrink when stimulated by the nervous system, creating color patterns that can be changed instantly. Different cells carry different color pigments and these allow countless color combinations and patterns to form.

The creature most frequently hunted by the octopus is the crab. The octopus expertly defends itself from the crab's powerful pincers, and its teeth are strong enough to break the crab's shell.

With its superior features, this hunter, which consists of moving muscles, is a perfect creature which conceals itself in the finest possible way.

It is impossible for the octopus to have felt the need to conceal itself from other creatures and then to have installed special color cells in its skin. This splendid camouflage system possessed by the octopus is, without doubt, an example of the flawless creation of the All-Knowing God.

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